This report covers activity from June 2002 to April 2003.
For activity from August 2000 to May 2001, please refer to http://hpwren.ucsd.edu/info/01_report.html.
For activity from June 2001 to May 2002, please refer to http://hpwren.ucsd.edu/info/02_report.html.
The HPWREN Annual Report (consisting of activity from June 2002 to April 2003) consists of the following sections:
Hans-Werner Braun, UCSD/SDSC, Principal Investigator
Bud Hale, UCSD/SDSC staff
Additional people/organizations who have been involved (and continue to be involved) with the project:
Disciplinary Science Applications (field researchers):
Education Applications (learning centers):
The HPWREN team has worked with the following entities regarding microwave tower access and installations:
In addition to those collaborations described in the Activities and Findings section, the HPWREN team has also been exploring incident/crisis management applications that might benefit from wireless networking. This exploratory investigation has included the following contacts:
Local Agencies and Organizations:
Federal Agencies and National Organizations:
Additionally, the HPWREN team has been working with similar research projects that aim to accomplish similar goals (wireless networking for research and education in "hard to reach" areas). These contacts have included the following:
The HPWREN team has also been involved with the planning and implementation of several additional education applications; these are described in the Training, Development, and Outreach sections. These efforts have included the following contacts:
Cisco, Contract Telecommunications Engineering, Ericsson, Intrinsync, Hewlett Packard, Ricoh, Space Instruments, and several other industrial collaborators
This section encompasses summaries of HPWREN's major activities and findings from June 2002 to April 2003. For details of each summary, please refer to the corresponding URL. For additional activities and findings, please refer to http://hpwren.ucsd.edu/news.
April 14, 2003
Activity: Although weather conditions challenged HPWREN researchers during their latest connectivity task, the team gladly reports that the Santa Rosa Native American reservation now has broadband Internet access. In exchange for linking the Santa Rosa Native Americans to HPWREN, the NSF-funded research project was granted access to the tribe's land atop Toro Peak. "This mutually beneficial collaboration is modelled after the arrangements that we have made with other tribes, such as Pala," said HPWREN PI Hans-Werner Braun.
Finding: "Thanks to our access to Santa Rosa property on Toro Peak, HPWREN is able to reach remote seismic sensors in the Anza Borrego desert, an ecological reserve in Boyd Deep Canyon, and the Kings Stormwater Bridge near Salton Sea. Being able to provide the reservation's educational facility with network access is an added bonus for our project's efforts as we aim to outreach to both remote research and education sites."
Activity: In mid-March 2003, teachers from around the country paid a "remote" visit to the Anza-Borrego State Park. The teachers, who were attending the National Teacher Training Institute (NTTI) Conference in Irvine, participated in an underwater tour of Crystal Cove State Park and examined fossilized oyster beds in nearby Fish Creek - while sitting in a conference room in Irvine about 100 miles away. The HPWREN team assisted the California State Parks with the remote interactive presentations by providing the high-speed connectivity.
The HPWREN team assisted the California State Parks with the remote interactive presentations by providing the high-speed connectivity. "We set up a four-foot antenna on a tripod at Fish Creek, and used 45 Megabits-per-second to connect to an HPWREN backbone site on Mount Laguna," explained HPWREN PI Hans-Werner Braun. "From Mount Laguna, our link shoots to North Peak, onto Mount Woodson, and finally to the San Diego Supercomputer Center at UCSD."
Additionally, a San Diego State University team comprised of geology graduate students deployed a local multi-megabit per second wireless network that extended the connectivity a mile or so further into the desert from the Fish Creek Base camp. This LAN involved multiple sites, high resolution and video cameras, as well as assorted environmental sensors.
Finding: "The high-speed wireless link provided by HPWREN can provide students in California with access to an extraordinary park resource that school buses simply can't get to," said Alan Friedman, Chief Information Officer for the California Department of Parks and Recreation in Sacramento. L. Louise Jee, GIS specialist at the Anza-Borrego State Park head quarters adds that "the possibilities of remote wildlife monitoring in this large park no longer seem so impossible to dream about."
February 28, 2003
Activity: The latest application of new technology to field research at SMER combines imaging and networking in a single package. In coordination with Hans-Werner Braun, Pablo Bryant, Research Technology Manager of the San Diego State University Field Station programs, has set up experimental stations based on high-resolution digital cameras that also include a Web server integrated into a single package. "Low-resolution webcams with built-in Web servers have been on the market for several years," Bryant said, "but a high-res camera with Web server is still pretty much a specialty item. The ones that we have been experimenting with for monitoring our ecological field stations have some unusual -- and very useful -- capabilities."
Finding: Results of Bryant's and Braun's early camera evaluations can be found at http://stat.hpwren.ucsd.edu/cameras/; results from evaluations of Ricoh 3+ megapixel i700 cameras are at http://stat.hpwren.ucsd.edu/Imagery/. Their latest evaluation is of the IQeye3 camera/server. "While the IQeye3 camera has lower resolution than the Ricoh i700," Bryant said, "it is a more completely implemented network camera with, for our purposes, richer functionalities -- among others an ability to define parameterizable image motion detect areas, interchangeable lenses, easy interface for automated image collection via the network, and a syslog capability. The entire device -- the 1288 x 968 pixel image and integrated Web server -- consumes less than three watts at 12 volts DC. It is possible to power the camera and a low-power radio network interface with a single solar array panel and storage battery."
January 7, 2003
Activity: In results presented this week at the 2003 meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Seattle, astrophysicist Greg Aldering and colleagues report that their supernova factory project has discovered an unprecedented 34 new supernovae in its first year.
Finding: "This has been the best rookie year for any supernova search project," Aldering said. The Nearby Supernova Factory, led by Aldering at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), is seeking out 300 new exploding stars to be used as standard distance markers in future studies to measure the change in the universe's rate of expansion and thereby determine its dark energy content. "We're completely dependent on the wireless network because we have to sift through huge amounts of images," Aldering said, "and we need those images as soon as possible after they're seen by the telescope."
Activity: The HPWREN team recently linked the Borrego Valley Downhole Seismic Array and the Boyd Deep Canyon Desert Research Center to their high-speed backbone node at Toro Peak.
Finding: This connectivity allows seismologists and geophysicists to integrate data from the Borrego Valley seismic array with other real-time seismic data that are being collected at UCSD. The researchers can then combine the data sets to get a clearer picture of what is going on with the earth's movement - and also have the ability to monitor and maintain the health of remote field instrumentation in real-time.
Likewise, the 16,301-acre Boyd Deep Canyon Desert Research Center also benefits from the high-speed connection. "Our researchers now have the tools to access real-time data and the option to use technology and field methods that were not available previously at Deep Canyon," says Al Muth of UC Riverside and director of the Center. "We look forward to exploring the potential of this new capability at Deep Canyon Desert Research Center."
Activity: Thanks to a partnership between the San Diego State University (SDSU) and the University of California at San Diego, the HPWREN research project has recently added SDSU as a backbone node on its 45Mbps network.
Finding: SDSU campus researchers already had access via the Internet to HPWREN-connected field equipment at the remote Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve and Mount Laguna Observatory. However, the original high-speed connectivity configuration routed the researchers to the field equipment via several channels (allowing for near-real-time access). Now, the new configuration allows the researchers to directly link to the HPWREN-connected equipment - bypassing the sometimes "clogged up" Internet portion of the original configuration.
December 10, 2002
Activity: Since Summer 2002, HPWREN student researchers Jeff Baker, William Gahr, and Zhao Li have been concentrating their efforts on network measurement, analysis, and documentation.
Finding: Specifically, the HPWREN students' work focuses on active, passive, and management information base (MIB) network data as well as network status documentation such as outages and utilization. Their individual findings are discussed in powerpoint slides available at the URL below.
Activity: In October 2002, installation of structural monitoring sensors on the Kings Stormwater Channel Bridge was completed and connected to HPWREN. Researchers are now able to monitor real-time structural response of the bridge via instruments such as accelerometers and strain gauges that stream information directly from the bridge to UCSD and California Department of Transportation (CalTrans) laboratories.
Finding: "The sensor system was installed to enable continuous health monitoring of the bridge which is the first of its kind - and the wireless connectivity enables a direct link from the bridge to UCSD and CalTrans," explained Vistap Karbhari, Chair of the UCSD Structural Engineering Department. "Data will be utilized by both the Department of Structural Engineering at UCSD and engineers at CalTrans."
"This system will also allow seismology researchers like myself access to a new real-time strong motion seismic station - where none existed before," added Frank Vernon, HPWREN co-principal investigator.
Activity: The HPWREN team collaborated with the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego (SSC San Diego) to provide high-speed network access to a field science site on San Clemente Island. The 72-mile link is by far the longest of HPWREN access links that operate within the unlicensed 2.4GHz band. The October 16 installation activity on San Clemente Island included establishing a broadband connection to HPWREN, implementing a seismograph station, and installing a weather station.
Finding: "We are excited about this recent collaboration at San Clemente with SSC-San Diego," says Braun. "This newly established long-distance access link not only lets seismologists more efficiently collect needed data for their studies, it also allows network researchers like myself to determine just how far we can push the network."
Activity: San Diego State University's Mount Laguna Observatory recently collaborated with HPWREN and the Tribal Digital Village Network (TDVNet) to provide high-speed Internet access to the La Posta, Manzanita, and Campo Native American reservations, which are located in southeastern San Diego county. While Mount Laguna Observatory provided space for the 40-inch antenna, TDVNet supplied the equipment and HPWREN provided the network connectivity.
Finding: "We are happy to support this collaborative effort to provide broadband access to the rural San Diego reservations," said Paul Etzel, director of San Diego State University's Mount Laguna Observatory. "Many of the tribal bands of San Diego County are rich with star lore as part of their cultures. The ground paintings of the Santa Ysabel and Mesa Grande bands depicting the Universe have been published internationally as prime examples of Native American star lore. Astronomy, through SDSU, has now come full circle in helping to provide San Diego tribes with access to a new Universe."
Activity:Scientists from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) Integrative Oceanography Division (IOD) and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) are currently conducting a two-week pilot study that uses 802.11b technology to help them examine surf zone water motions in real-time. With assistance from the HPWREN team as well as the UCSD Administrative Computing, and Telecommunication Services (ACT) and the Office of Network Operations (ONO), several SIO and WHOI scientists have deployed two in-situ current and wave measuring stations in shallow water at Black's Beach. These stations are connected to an autonomous data acquisition system on the beach which telemeters the data in real-time, via a wireless Ethernet bridge on Scripps Pier, directly to IOD and WHOI laboratories for analysis.
Finding: "The real-time data that is now being streamed from the beach to our labs allows researchers to better understand beach erosion and nearshore circulation," explains Jerome Wanetick, a computer scientist at SIO's Integrative Oceanography Division. "Once this pilot study is complete, we will make our final plans for next fall's larger experiment involving ten of these telemetry stations."
Activity: In September 2002, the HPWREN team participated in an activity that instrumented a Mount Laguna wireless communications facility with several real-time data sensors. Specifically, researchers affiliated with UCSD's HPWREN and ROADNet, SDSU's Field Stations Program, and SSC-San Diego's Crisis/Consequence Management Initiative deployed nine sensors that will allow for real-time environmental monitoring. Data collected by these sensors stream via HPWREN from a Mount Laguna mountaintop to the San Diego Supercomputer Center and can then be made accessible to desktops throughout the world. To make sense of the raw sensor data, ROADNet researchers have created a data storage system and user-friendly interface that allows for easy access to the real-time information.
Finding: "Administrators of the Sheriff's Department managed Regional Communications System believe that the HPWREN sensor project may eventually lead to the development of more widespread wireless technology in mountainous East County areas that will assist in general public safety tasks such as search and rescue missions and the prevention and containment of wildland fires," says Curt Munro, manager of the San Diego Sheriff's Department's Wireless Services Unit and Regional Communications System.
"The deployment of meteorological sensors and imaging equipment throughout the county's backcountry and remote mountaintops, coupled with real-time access and a user-friendly web interface, will aid in the understanding of weather patterns and help refine meteorological models," explains Pablo Bryant, SDSU Field Stations Program research technologist.
"As part of our National Science Foundation funded project, we would like to stimulate a vision of high performance ubiquitous data networking," says HPWREN principal investigator Hans-Werner Braun. "As such, we are collaborating with various agencies on demonstrating various values that can be supported by real-time data networking, examples of which being sensor networks and an ability to rapidly deploy 'anywhere' ad-hoc networks."
Activity: In August 2002, the HPWREN team completed a 70-kilometer link using 45 Mbps radios between Toro Peak and Mount Laguna to provide Internet connectivity to Toro Peak and beyond. Not only does the Toro node allow field seismologists and ecologists access to a high-speed network, but it will also provide educators on the rural Santa Rosa Native American Reservation with a broadband connection to the Internet.
Finding: "The Toro node plays a crucial role in the continued development of the ANZA seismic network which monitors earthquakes in southern California from the San Jacinto fault in Riverside county to the Mexican border," says SIO geophysicist Frank Vernon, who is PI of the ANZA seismic network and co-PI of the HPWREN project. "Specifically, this connection allows research scientists like me to send and receive continuous real-time data from permanent and temporary remote field stations and facilities."
Activity: UCSD and SDSU researchers collaborated for a high performance data communications demonstration involving a research airplane and a ground station. The experiment is the second in a series of multiple tests that evaluate the use of radios that communicate using the unlicensed spectrum with a nearby airplane. While the first test used a tripod-mounted, manually-steered yagi antenna, the most recent test used this stationary set of planar array antennas that pointed vertically to reach the airplane. One of the ground station antennas, which were both connected to the same radio, provided an additional link to an HPWREN backbone node atop Mount Woodson and finally onto the San Diego Supercomputer Center, where the HPWREN backbone originates.
Finding: "During the April test we manually tracked the airplane from the ground, with ground antennas mounted on a tripod. This yielded excellent results, but the tracking was messy - primarily due to multiple cables that often entangled," explains Hans-Werner Braun, HPWREN principal investigator. "In this second test, we used a stationary antenna on the ground with no manual steering. Expectedly, this yielded worse connectivity results because (a) the antennas were not explicitly trained onto the airplane, and (b) the flying was (purposely) not very well defined (including lots of banking and flying out of reach), to learn more about the border conditions."
Details: http://hpwren.ucsd.edu/news/020823.html ---
Activity: The HPWREN team recently worked with UCSD Department of Structural Engineering field researchers for an installation at Camp Elliott. The facility, which is located about eight miles east of UCSD, is currently being used by the engineering researchers as a seismic test facility and is now linked to the 2.4 Ghz portion of HPWREN.
Finding: "One of the primary components of the NEES program is the ability to tele-participate and conduct experimentation at various equipment sites in real-time," explains Lelli Van Den Einde, NEES Coordinator and Project Manager. "Our research at the Camp Elliott site will eventually require one gigabit-per-second networking capabilities, and this HPWREN connection is our first step in getting there."
Activity:The HPWREN team recently completed a social science study focused on the diffusion of the network within the 4500-acre Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve (SMER). Recently deployed sensors and high-resolution cameras allow researchers from throughout the world to conduct their studies at SMERand receive their sensor and camera data via the Internet. That is, the collected ecological data travels via the Internet (originating with the HPWREN connection) from dataloggers and cameras in the field directly to the researcher’s computer.
The research team hypothesized that the increase of perceived relative advantage, perceived compatibility, and positive communication channels leads to increased HPWREN adoption, while the increase of perceived complexity leads to decreased HPWREN adoption. To test the hypotheses (which totalled nine), the HPWREN team collected survey data related to SMER researchers’ perceptions of the network connectivity, their communication channels, and use of the network.
Finding: Path bivariate correlations provided support for eight of nine hypotheses related to perceived attributes (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity), communication channels, and network use among 37 field scientists affiliated with the HPWREN-connected SMER. Additional study analysis included simultaneous regression analysis of diffusion communication with relative advantage, compatibility, and complexity as predictors; this analysis resulted in significance for both relative advantage and complexity. However, multiple regression results indicated that perceived compatibility is not a significant predictor of diffusion communication. On the other hand, simultaneous regression analysis of all variables, with adoption acting as the dependent variable, showed that perceived compatibility, perceived complexity, and diffusion communication all have a significant impact upon HPWREN adoption. Perhaps the most important lesson learned during this study was the vital role played by communication during the innovation development, implementation, and use stages of the network.
Activity: The HPWREN team recently transitioned one of their backbone nodes from Stephensen Peak to Mount Laguna - thanks to a collaboration with the San Diego Sheriff's Department, which provided the UC San Diego and San Diego State researchers with access to their communications facility.
Finding: "This transition to Mount Laguna allows us to install larger antennas than we were previously able to use, in preparation for the long-distance link to Toro Peak that is needed for various applications, including seismic sensors," said Hans-Werner Braun, HPWREN PI.
Activity: HPWREN users ranging from astronomers to educators met to discuss their current uses of the network and how they plan to utilize the connectivity for future applications as well. The primary objective of the workshop was to stimulate discussion regarding long-term continuity of the network, which was re-emphasized by the presenters who each expressed that the connection is extremely valuable to their research and education agendas. Specifically, Hans-Werner Braun started the workshop with a presentation regarding lessons learned from the first two years of HPWREN activities and how he envisions the network's continued growth. Frank Vernon focused his talk on the impact that the network has upon his geophysics research and the collaboration between HPWREN and ROADNet. Braun and Vernon also discussed their plans to continue building out HPWREN - enabling additional researchers and disciplines to take advantage of the network's robust infrastructure.
Finding: Greg Aldering discussed how HPWREN allows Palomar Observatory research projects like the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and Nearby Supernova Factory (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) to stream and process night sky images in real-time. Paul Etzel also talked about HPWREN's positive impacts upon both his science and education endeavors; his presentation focused on Mount Laguna Observatory's continuing interest in remotely controlled telescopes.
Pablo Bryant explained Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve's use of HPWREN and the current build-out of an extensive intra-network within the reserve. Meanwhile, Dan Cayan discussed the development of a prototype meteorological/hydrological data logger that will soon be used for data collection and real-time transmission via HPWREN in places like the Santa Margarita.
Tribal Digital Village Network (TDVNet) progress was presented by Mike Peralta, who said that the TDVNet now has eight Native American reservations connected to HPWREN. Peralta also discussed his gratitude to Hans-Werner Braun for teaching him the basics of networking, as he is now able to pass this knowledge along to the Native American communities in San Diego.
Both undergraduate and graduate students benefit from the hands-on experience that they receive via their HPWREN work. Likewise, HPWREN staff members also benefit from various training and development opportunities.
For example, this past year an HPWREN staff member earned a masters degree from SDSU's School of Communication, specializing in telecommunications and social science; her thesis examined the impacts of broadband telecommunications (HPWREN) upon ecological field research (Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve). Specifically, this thesis studied the diffusion of HPWREN within the 4500-acre Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve (SMER). The SMER, which is located in southern California, is primarily utilized for studies by researchers from San Diego and Riverside county research and teaching institutions. Recently deployed sensors and high-resolution cameras, however, allow researchers from all over the world to conduct their studies at SMER–and receive their sensor and camera data via the Internet. That is, the collected ecological data travels via the Internet (originating with the HPWREN connection) from dataloggers and cameras in the field directly to the researcher’s computer. Before such an innovation is adopted by users, though, it is important for them to be familiarized with the technology. Therefore, this thesis project examined the perceived attributes and communication channels used during the deployment of the HPWREN technology. This thesis also looked at the ways in which the SMER scientists perceive the HPWREN and related technology. Specifically, the project discussed how the technology will be relative to their research and teaching endeavors, how the network will be compatible with their current data collection procedures and teaching curricula, and whether or not the technology will be too complex for them to use within their current and future work.
Hypotheses stated that the increase of perceived relative advantage, perceived compatibility, and positive communication channels leads to increased HPWREN adoption, while the increase of perceived complexity leads to decreased HPWREN adoption. To test the hypotheses (which totalled nine), survey data was collected. The survey questions focused on the SMER researchers’ perceptions of the network connectivity, their communication channels, and use of the network. Path bivariate correlations provided support for eight of nine hypotheses related to perceived attributes (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity), communication channels, and network use among 37 field scientists affiliated with the HPWREN-connected SMER. Additional study analysis included simultaneous regression analysis of diffusion communication with relative advantage, compatibility, and complexity as predictors; this analysis resulted in significance for both relative advantage and complexity. However, multiple regression results indicated that perceived compatibility is not a significant predictor of diffusion communication. On the other hand, simultaneous regression analysis of all variables, with adoption acting as the dependent variable, showed that perceived compatibility, perceived complexity, and diffusion communication all have a significant impact upon HPWREN adoption. Perhaps the most important lesson learned during this study was the vital role played by communication during the innovation development, implementation, and use stages of the network.
An on-line version of the published thesis can be found on the web at http://hpwren.ucsd.edu/kmb/thesis.
In addition to this example, undergraduate students have also participated in active research alongside the HPWREN team. Primarily funded by a supplement grant via the NSF's Research Experience for Undergraduates, the students are able to apply lessons learned in the classroom to a true research environment. Projects conducted by the HPWREN student researchers over the past year include the following:
Jeff Baker, Research Experience for Undergraduates (Summer 2002 to present): Network Measurement and Analysis
In addition to the training and development among the HPWREN team, collaborators and partners have also benefited from the lessons learned during the past year. For instance, the Tribal Digital Village Network (TDVNet) participants continue to express their gratitude for the personal training and mentorship provided to them by Hans-Werner Braun and the HPWREN staff. Additional benefits experienced by collaborators are described in the Activities and Findings section of this report.
HPWREN's major outreach activities are described in the Activities and Findings section. Perhaps the most significant HPWREN outreach activity includes the team's continued involvement with the Southern California Tribal Chairman's Association's Tribal Digital Village Network (TDVNet), which is primarily funded by a $5 million dollar grant from the Hewlett Packard Corporation. Specifically, HPWREN works with the Digital Village Network Executive Committee by providing guidance regarding the provision and utilization of high-speed Internet access among the 18 Native American reservations in San Diego county. Building upon the infrastructure in place via HPWREN, the TDVNet team now has more than half of the San Diego county reservations online.
In addition to outreach activities, the HPWREN team has presented papers and talks at several academic and community conferences this past year. These are listed in the Publications and Products section (Other specific products) below.
What Have You Published In Journals?
Braun, H-W. (2002, February 6). Long-Term Ecological Reserve Workshop. http://www.lternet.edu/technology/.
Braun, H-W. (2002, April 27). Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve's Spring Celebration: HPWREN and SMER.
Braun, H-W. (2002, May 14) SDSU Sensor Networking Conference: HPWREN and Sensor Networking.
Bruch, K.M., Andersen, P.A., Spitzberg, B. (2003, May). Diffusion in the Borderland: A Study of the Implementation of Broadband Connectivity in an Ecological Reserve. Paper presented at the International Communication Association 2003 Convention, Information Systems Division. Paper abstract found at http://convention.allacademic.com/ica2003/view _paper_info.html?pub_id=488&part_id1=19055 .
Braun H-W., T. Hansen, K. Lindquist, B. Ludäscher, J. Orcutt, A. Rajasekar, F. Vernon, Distributed Data Management Architecture for Embedded Computing, 6th Workshop on High Performance Embedded Computing, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Sept. 2002.
Bock, Y., J. Canas, A. Andrew, F. Vernon (2002). Development of a Real-Time GPS/Seismic Displacement Meter: GPS Component. Eos Trans. AGU, 83(47), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract G52A-0961.
Bruch, K. M. (2003, April 10-13). Innovation Diffusion and Communication Patterns. Paper presented at the Central States Communication Association 2003 Convention, Communication Theory Interest Group. Paper abstract found at http://www.csca-net.org/program03/saturday.doc.
Bruch, K. M., Braun, H-W., Hellweg, S., Musick, D., Collins, K., and Nelson, M. (2002, March 3). Communication Impacts of an NSF-funded High Performance Wireless Network Upon Rural Native American Learning Centers. Panel presented at the Western States Communication Association 2002 Convention, Organizational Communication Interest Group. Panel abstract found at http://www.westcomm.org/conventions/2002_program2.html.
Hansen, T. (2002, January 30-31). E2Epi Measurement Workshop. http://www.internet2.edu/e2epi/WK01/workshop01_summary01.shtml.
Hansen, T. (2002, March 25-26). Passive and Active Measurement (PAM) Workshop. http://www.labs.agilent.com/pam2002/.
Hansen, T., Yalamanchili, P., Braun, H-W. (2002, March 25-26). Wireless Measurement and Analysis on HPWREN. Paper presented at the Passive and Active Measurement 2002 Workshop. Paper found at http://www.labs.agilent.com/pam2002/proceedings/Measurements_on_HPWREN.pdf.
Lindquist, K. G., F. L. Vernon, J. Orcutt, J. Berger, Y. Bock, T. S. Hansen, A. Rajasekar, B. Ludaescher, HW. Braun (2002a). Generalized Seismic Processing Systems to Diverse Signal Domains. 14th Annual IRIS Workshop.
Lindquist, K. G., F. L. Vernon, A. Rajasekar, T. S. Hansen, B. Ludaescher, J.Orcutt, H. Braun, Y. Bock, J. Eakins, C. Keen(2002b). Virtualizing Data Access for Generalized Geophysical Processing Systems. Eos Trans. AGU, 83(47), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract U11A-0013.
Vernon, F. (2002, April 10) Birch Aquarium Lecture: ROADNet: Real-Time Observatories, Applications and Data management Network: Bringing the Information Superhighway to the Dirt Road and the High Seas.
Vernon, F. (2002, March 4). IGPP Visualization Center Opening: Seismic arrays and the HPWREN wireless network in southern California.
Vernon, F. & Orcutt, J. (2002, March 26). Earthscope IT Workshop. Wireless Networks and Real-Time Data Management.
Vernon, F., Y. Bock(2002). Development of a Real-Time GPS/Seismic Displacement Meter: Seismic Component and Communications. Eos Trans. AGU, 83(47), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract G52A-0962.
Vernon, F, D. Kilb, J. Eakins, J. Otero, S. W. Roecker, C. H. Thurber (2002). Visualization of Real-time Seismic Field Experiments. Eos Trans. AGU, 83(47), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract U52A-08.
Additionally, Hans-Werner Braun presented at various meetings, a non-exhaustive list being:
San Diego law enforcement and border control people
What Books or Other One-Time Publications Have You Produced?
Daily Wireless: February 2, 2003
Smart Computing: February 2003
Windows and .NET Magazine: January 30, 2003
Department of Energy Science News: January 27, 2003
GlobalTechnoscan: January 15, 2003
Grid Today: January 13, 2003
Berkeley Lab Currents: January 10, 2003
Spacehike.com: January 8, 2003
NSF press release: January 7, 2003
Wireless Review: January 1, 2003 (web version)
Wireless Review: January 1, 2003 (print version)
Investor's Business Daily: December 6, 2002
Enterprise Information Technology Services Weekly News: December 5, 2002
ComputerWorld: November 21, 2002
Australian IT: November 19, 2002
SKYBroadband Newsletter November 19, 2002
Rambler Ferra (Russian magazine): November 18, 2002
UK/Ireland Yahoo News: November 18, 2002
ComputerWorld: November 18, 2002 (web version)
ComputerWorld: November 18, 2002 (print version)
SolarAccess.com: Renewable Energy News: November 18, 2002
Internet Weekly Report: November 18, 2002
Mobile Commerce Net: Mobile Industry Watch: November 17, 2002
Nordic Wireless Watch: November 17, 2002
PC World New Zealand: November 14, 2002
Netstumbler: November 13, 2002
Daily Wireless: November 13, 2002
Moloch Industry News: November 13, 2002
BroadbandReports.com November 13, 2002
Slashdot: News for Nerds: November 13, 2002
US DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network News: November 13, 2002
Weekly Clean Energy Roundup: November 13, 2002
Smart Mobs: November 13, 2002
MacCentral: November 13, 2002
ACM News Service: Tech News: November 13, 2002
California Solar Center E-Clips: November 12, 2002
SpeedGuide.net: The Broadband Source: November 12, 2002
NewsFactor Network: Tech Innovation and Discovery November 12, 2002
Yahoo News: November 12, 2002
ComputerWorld: November 12, 2002
BroadbandReports.com November 12, 2002
BoingBoing: A Directory of Wonderful Things: November 12, 2002
Solarbuzz: Solar Energy News Center: November 5, 2002
Cosmiverse Tech News: November 5, 2002
Media 52: November 5, 2002
Newswise: November 5, 2002
Wireless Dispatch: November 2002
Jacobs School of Engineering Newsletter: Fall 2002
San Diego Technology News: October 8, 2002
Wireless Design Online: September 2002
Wireless Networks Online: September 2002
RF GlobalNet News for RF Professionals: September 2002
NSF CISE Newsletter: August 2002
EnVision: July-September, 2002
San Diego Union Tribune: July 21, 2002 (web version)
Telephony: June 3, 2002 (web version)
Telephony: June 2, 2002 (print version)
Toggle News: June 2002
UCSD Perspectives: May 2002
Additionally, HPWREN continues to be regularly featured in the San Diego Supercomputer Center's Online publication.
Other Specific Products: (database, software, instruments, inventions, physical collections, educational aids, etc)
The HPWREN backbone nodes consist of the San Diego Supercomputer Center, Mount Soledad, San Diego State University, Mount Woodson, Cuyamaca Mountain, Mount Laguna, Red Mountain, and Toro Peak; the network's access connections utilize either 45Mbps or 802.11b equipment. Details of the network are depicted at http://hpwren.ucsd.edu/topo.html.
Another product produced by the HPWREN team is the website (http://hpwren.ucsd.edu), which includes the project's latest activities, an extensive photography gallery, access to the project's web cameras located throughout the county, detailed information regarding the solar panel relays, HPWREN-connected sensors, and online versions of several public information materials.
How have your findings, techniques you developed or extended, or other products from your project contributed to the principal disciplinary field(s) of the project?
The HPWREN team is not just building a high-speed network for the sake of fast connectivity. Instead, the team is concerned with the "hows" and "whys" this network is important, and the specific applications that require such broadband connectivity.
The principal objective of the HPWREN project is to apply wireless technologies to various science and education environments, and to research the performance parameters. Such latter research is supported by dedicated measurement machines at network nodal sites, as well as measurement capabilities within other equipment such as network routers and radios. Weather stations and video cameras further allow HPWREN researchers to collate environmental data with measurements gained via the networking equipment. Data and results are being principally communicated via our web site, specifically http://stat.hpwren.ucsd.edu/.
How have your findings, techniques you developed or extended, or other products from your project contributed to disciplines other than your own (or disciplines of colleagues and associates not covered under "Contributions within Discipline")? Please enter or update as appropriate.
HPWREN's contributions to the disciplinary science fields of geophysics, astronomy, ecology, climate/hydrology/meteorology, oceanography, and engineering are described below by geophysicist Frank Vernon (UCSD/SIO), astronomers Greg Aldering (Palomar Observatory) and Paul Etzel (Mount Laguna Observatory), ecological reserve technologist Pablo Bryant (Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve), climate researcher Dan Cayan, Scripps Institution of Oceanography deputy director John Orcutt, and Jacobs School of Engineering Dean Frieder Sieble.
Note: These excerpts were taken from support materials provided in conjunction with the HPWREN follow-on proposal.
Frank Vernon, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics:
Another significant improvement to the ANZA system is the extension of HPWREN to include Toro Peak, the central data concentration point for the ANZA network. The current connectivity consists of the original 512 Kbit link used for ANZA and a new 45 Mbit link provided by HPWREN. This new connectivity will also allow Internet connectivity to UCSD's PFO Geophysical Observatory and Durmid Hill Strainmeters, UCSD structural monitoring of the Kings Stormwater Bridge in the Coachella Valley, as well as UCSB's Garner Valley and Borrego Valley Downhole Arrays. The advantage to the ANZA network is that it removes the major telemetry single point of failure in the ANZA network and allows us to access additional seismic sensors at each site.
The other point of interest to the regional network program is that through the PASSCAL Telemetry Array project and HPWREN, we have started to test the new IP-based Quanterra Q330 datalogger in its telemetry mode. These systems are the prototypes for the USARRAY component of the Earthscope NSF MRE project. So far, the results have been very encouraging. The timing systems are good and the noise characteristics are quite good. We have successfully conducted telemetry tests over Internet, 802.11b wireless Internet, and over satellite links. We have conducted a temporary wireless experiment putting accelerometers with Q330 on the Coronado Bridge and connected it into the ANZA network. We will be building a 20-station real-time wireless transportable array based on the Q330s as more units arrive. While we are waiting, we will continue telemetry testing with the units we have.
In the future, I see several important applications of HPWREN to our seismic systems. Of first order importance is the continued real-time monitoring of the San Diego region and gaining access to new sensors in remote areas. As part of this project, we will continue to develop and test an earthquake early warning system. The other primary use of HPWREN will be to prototype and test the next generation of IP-based seismic data acquisition systems that will be used by the NSF Earthscope and by the NSF-funded IRIS consortium.
Greg Aldering, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Palomar Observatory:
Beginning in December 2002 the Palomar telescope will upgrade from a 50 million pixel camera to a camera with an unprecedented 160 million pixels. This camera will generate data at a rate of 40 Mbps (compressed), and will require the full capacity of the HPWREN link to Palomar. This new camera will also contribute to new science programs designed to to gravitationally lensed quasars, exotic solar system objects such as Kuiper belt objects, as well as the very first quasars formed in the universe.
In addition, in mid-July 2003 the Nearby Supernova Factory will have completed a 1 million dollar spectrograph specifically designed to obtain dedicated year-round follow-up of the supernovae coming from the Palomar camera. This instrument will be sited on Mauna Kea in Hawaii and so due to the 3 hr time difference from California to Hawaii the spectrograph will be able to observe supernovae from Mauna Kea on the same night that they are discovered at Palomar. Thus HPWREN will be a key component of a larger system of remotely operated state-of-the-art astronomy instruments. We anticipate operating this experiment for roughly 5 years, during which time over roughly a 130 Tbyte of imaging data will be ttransferred processed, and searched.
The NAS Astronomy Decadal report commissioned by NSF and NASA (http://www.nap.edu/books/0309070317/html/), and the NAS Turner report (http://www.nap.edu/books/0309074061/html/124.html) have listed the study of dark energy as one of the most important scientific questions that astronomy and physics can and need to address. Supernovae are the current best means of studying dark energy through its influence on the expansion rate of the universe. Our Nearby Supernova Factory is an essential component of these studies, and was specifically endorsed by the joint NSF-DOE Scientific Assessment Group on Experimental Non-Accelerator Physics (SAGENAP; see http://doe-hep.hep.net/SAGENAP-Report-2002_final.pdf). In addition to helping to address questions of fundamental physics, the Nearby Supernova Factory serves as a training ground for both graduate and undergraduate students - and even for physicists who are transitioning into astrophysics. The real-time data carried by HPWREN is obviously central to the success of our project.
Similarly, detection of near earth asteroids is key to assessing the threat to our planet and civilization posed by these marauders of the solar system. A proper census of these objects is also important for understanding the history of life on Earth and the influence of past cataclysmic asteroid impacts.
Paul Etzel, San Diego State University, Astronomy Department chair, Mount Laguna Observatory director
HPWREN allows for the routine transfer of images from MLO to campus computers, the extensive use of web tools, and for astronomers to compare current images to historical archives. We are very much interested in continuing in this successful partnership. HPWREN has also increased participation by other astronomers in the telescope-starved CSU system. Our current telescopes are mostly of the late 1960s vintage, and hence require a human operator (astronomer) to be present. However, we initiated a pilot program of "service observing" for Dr. Fred Ringwald of CSU Fresno to exploit the capabilities of HPWREN. SDSU astronomers operate the 1.0-meter telescope at MLO to observe for Dr. Ringwald while he receives and reduces data in his office in near real time. Communications between him and the MLO astronomers allow for changes in observational procedure during the night to optimize his observations. Dr. Ringwald now makes more observing trips to MLO with his students in the summer months because of increased interest in astronomy at CSU Fresno. This "service observing" illustrates that HPWREN is capable in the future of transmitting data in true real-time via more automated means.
We are very happy that the southern loop of HPWREN, with a direct connection to the SDSU campus, will soon be a reality. This connection will increase reliability and increase effective throughput. However, HPWREN is also directing our future efforts because of the possibilities that it enables. Below I will briefly summarize three projects in various stages of construction or planning that are only possible because of HPWREN.
High-Speed CCD Camera: SDSU is now building a specialized high-speed, frame-transfer CCD camera to study objects that exhibit rapid variability in brightness. The primary need is to study flickering in Cataclysmic Variable stars caused by the interaction of gas from a donor star as it spirals onto the surface of a white dwarf, neutron star, or a black hole in an exotic binary star system. Other projects include the fast eclipses of white dwarf stars by fairly normal stars, and the occultations of stars by the moon, planets, and asteroids. This special CCD will take images of up to 2 Mbytes in size every 0.01 to 0.5 seconds, and thus produce from 30 to 100 Gbytes of time-series data per night! This data rate will tax HPWREN in its current configuration. Servers with large disk caches will be placed both at MLO and on campus to capture and buffer these data. The cost of the basic CCD camera hardware was $26K, and I anticipate another $20-30K of related computer expenses after development is completed. Once this single-channel (one color) camera is fully tested and performs routine science, we hope to submit a NSF MRI proposal to build a 4-channel camera to observe in four colors of light simultaneously, which would be a very unique instrument. In support of this project, and future HPWREN related projects at MLO, we recently converted our Mechanical-Electrical Engineering staff position, vacated by retirement, into a Software Engineering position.
ULTRA Telescope: A three-year NSF MRI proposal will be submitted in January 2003 to develop and test Ultra-Lightweight Technology for Research in Astronomy (ULTRA), using the hitherto unapplied technology of graphite-fiber composites to fabricate astronomical-grade mirrors and Optical Tube Assemblies (OTAs) for ground-based telescopes. The budget for the project is $1.2M with the consortium of institutions having committed $370K. The ULTRA consortium brings a partnership between private industry (Composite Mirror Applications, Inc. of Tucson, AZ; Astronomical Research Cameras, Inc., of San Diego, CA) and three institutions of higher education (Kansas University Physics & Astronomy Department and KU Aerospace Engineering Department, SDSU Astronomy Department & MLO, and Darthmouth University Astronomy Department). Kansas University, which has no dedicated astronomical facility, is the lead institution. Composite technology may pave the way to produce economically telescopes of the 1.0- to 3.0-meter size, and hopefully enable the construction of Extremely Large Telescopes of 30-meter aperture and larger, which are conceptualized as being made from light-weight mirror segments. The ULTRA telescope will be a 1.0-meter test facility based upon composite technology. It is to replace the small 0.4-meter telescope at MLO, and is to be run in remote and robotic modes over the Internet via HPWREN. The consortium will test the ULTRA telescope's performance as an astronomical facility, and also test the optical and mechanical stability of the mirror and OTA. Upon completion of the project, KU and SDSU will operate the telescope jointly for research and instructional purposes.
Robotic 2.5-Meter Telescope: The advent of HPWREN, and renewal of our faculty via retirements, brought about significant changes in our long-standing vision to build a "100-inch class" telescope on MLO. It became apparent that HPWREN provides not only the bandwidth to transmit images to campus in real time, but would also allow for operation of a modern telescope either remotely or robotically if it were designed for such capabilities from the start. We settled upon a new and versatile design based upon the robotic 2.0-meter Liverpool John Moores University (UK) telescope on La Palma in the Canary Islands. By adopting this design, observations can be done remotely or initiated robotically from the SDSU campus, from another CSU campus, or as part of a global network to attack high-profile programs of astronomical research. Today, worldwide, observing time on telescopes of this size or larger is allocated months in advance to an astronomer for a given instrument for a few nights a year; there is no flexibility. This new Liverpool design allows for up to seven different astronomical instruments to be mounted simultaneously for different types of experiments; all would be "on-line" for use during the night for several scientific projects. Observing proposals from participating scientists would be submitted over the Internet to a "virtual astronomer" resident in the computer system that runs the telescope. Observations would be optimally scheduled throughout each night; the "virtual astronomer" would point the telescope, direct light to the proper instrument, make the observations of the requested object, and return the data over the Internet to the scientist who initiated the research program. The SDSU 2.5-meter telescope would be the largest robotic telescope in the world, and it would operate under a completely new paradigm. The fully funded budget for the telescope, dome, on-site construction, and shipping is $8.6 M. In the summer of 2002, SDSU booked a rather large estate in which the Astronomy Department was named a beneficiary. It is anticipated that approximately $3.0 M of these funds will be directed towards the MLO 2.5-meter telescope project. Additional private funds (and eventual NSF funds) will be required. HPWREN, and the exciting new types of science projects that it would enable, will be important in these fund-raising efforts as well.
Pablo Bryant, San Diego State University, Ecological Field Stations technologist
Our plans are to greatly expand the number of sensors and sensor locations that we have in the field at SMER and to finish building our own wireless data network within the reserve. The reserve has two weather stations, one with an eddy correlation component, and one water quality station. We are currently in the process of adding two more weather stations and two water quality stations at SMER with funding that was awarded to us by NSF under Field Stations and Marine Laboratories. The FSML award has also given us the funding to complete the site wide wireless Ethernet network that was originally started with equipment provided by HPWREN. SMER has been attracting research projects because of our connectivity to the Internet and our wireless network that provides almost complete wireless coverage on the reserve. As an example, Scripps Institute of Oceanography researcher Dan Cayan, is in the process of deploying thirty long term weather stations throughout the reserve that will report back real time data to the web. Over the next five years the number of sensors in the field and the number of research projects being conducted at SMER will increase dramatically and HPWREN will be the conduit that gets this data out of the backwoods and on top your desktops. Without HPWREN this would not be possible.
The network and the staff have been much more that an ISP that only provides far away places with economical Internet connectivity. HPWREN has introduced a paradigm shift in the way we conduct field research. The HPWREN staff has collaborated and given the support that was needed for us to build our own wireless network for remote data collection. In the past, after the initial investment of sensors and a datalogger the most time consuming and sometimes costly part of collecting environmental data was actually going out the field to get it. Driving long distances, trudging through the wilderness and downloading the data to your laptop could take the better part of the day and could limit the number of sensor sites that could be established. This problem of spatial separation between the researcher and the sensor data has now been erased. HPWREN and the associated transfer of technology allow a scientist to monitor and collect data from a greater number of sites and to gain access to locations that wired connectivity would never be possible even if you had limitless funding. For example, since our site is a ecological reserve we want to leave as much of the site undisturbed as possible so even if we had the money to trench and lay fiber it would not do us any good because the action would run contrary to our mission of trying to preserve and understand our native environment. As for future development, we see using HPWREN and our local wireless systems as a way to give real time virtual tour of the reserve and to conduct interpretive classes in the field that can be multicast to classroom across that country or the world. Also, given the bi-directionality of the Ethernet link from the Internet to our field station and then distributed across the reserve we see an opportunity to design a system that lets researchers have access to on-line models and servers using PDA machines in the field.
Climate, Hydrology and Meteorology
Dan Cayan, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, climate researcher
Thus, despite its heavy population and massive economy, this region is lacking in a well designed array of meteorological and hydrological instruments to monitor and track changes in its climate and hyhydrologicalystems. The avavailabilityf wireless communications enables new networks of sensors with much greater spatial and temporal resolution than ever before. Continuously developing communications technologies, improving solar electric cells, low power electronics, and smaller, cheaper sensors make this an ideal time to develop such a network.
In the Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve (SMER), operated by SDSU and featuring communications link to HPWREN, we are building an array of meteorological and hydrological observation stations. Our vision is to develop microclimate and hyhydrologicaltime series to characterize the variability of water and weather in this coastal Southern California watershed. This summer, SIO researchers in collaboration with SMER staff members installed fifteen 10 meter meteorological towers. This tower array (see map) is aligned along and across the Santa Margarita river channel. The towers (see photo of Alex Revchuk working to install tower sections) will serve as platforms for meteorological sensors, data loggers to access the meteorological and (in some cases) hydrological sensors, and antennas. The towers are also available for housing sensors deployed by other investigators (cameras, sound sensors, etc).
In the meantime, SIO Development Engineer Douglas Alden is building a new low cost, low power data logger that will log, record and transmit data from several meteorological and hydrological sensors. This logger is designed for wilderness applications and will acaccommodateeveral standard memeteorologicalnd hydrological sensors. The current version will be powered by a small battery pack and its 32MB of memory is adequate to store several months of data (at a few minute sample interval). In SMER, the data will be transmitted via "free wave" spread spectrum, ununlicensedand radios to selected SMER telecommunications nodes. The present strategy will employ a Cerf Cube Linux server at the SMER telecommunication nodes to convert the freewave radio signal into TCP/IP protocol. This signal will be transmitted to the SMER 2.4 GHz grid antenna that links the intra-reserve network to the 45 Mbps HPWREN backbone. We hope to have an initial set of sensors installed and working by early this winter in order to record winter storms, which may be especially active because El Nino conditions have developed in the tropical Pacific this year.
In the next few years, we would like to work on the following activities to extend the initial network in SMER:
The SMER hydrometeorological array must be made to function routinely, with high temporal sampling (every few seconds to every few minutes, depending on the element that is being recorded). Data will be ingested into a data archiving system for public access. Properties of spatial and temporal variation of hydrometeorological conditions, including the precipitation, humidity, solar radiation, and winds will be examined in the resulting data stream.
Additional sensors will added to the SMER array. These may include more detailed short and long wave radiation, air quality, soil moisture, and water chemistry/quality measures.
The Santa Margarita array needs to be developed into a well-sampled transect along and across the watercourse from the ocean to the upstream headwaters. Recently, with the help of John Helly of SDSC, we have begun discussions with the Resources staff of Camp Pendleton to consider extending the SMER hydro/met array to the coast along the Santa Margarita through the U.S. Marine Base. If wireless communications via HPWREN can be provided, the architecture that is being developed in SMER might be extended into this coastal segment. Additionally, there is need to install some stations in the higher elevation mountainous region to the west and northwest of SMER that forms the headwaters of this watershed.
There is interest to begin developing a second array of hydrological and meteorological stations in the San Diego River watershed, which will provide an interesting contrast to the Santa Margarita because of its much more urban setting. There would be great interest and probably considerable political support for such an expansion. This of course, would depend on the availability of communications access along strategic portions of the San Diego River. This will also depend on garnering additional funding and partners to help carry the work load and expand our capabilities with respect to water quality issues.
Oceanography and Beyond
John Orcutt, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, deputy director
During the past year the NSF ITR project ROADNet (Real-time Observatories, Applications, and Data management Network) has relied upon HPWREN for support in its research. ROADNet has concentrated upon the development of end-to-end software or middleware to integrate a large number of heterogeneous sensors and data into a virtual environmental observatory in real time. The project relies upon a marriage of Scripps' object ring buffer (ORB) software for IP communications and data buffering with SDSC's storage resource broker (SRB) for data archiving, data integration between ORB's, file systems, and archives as well as data discovery. Current sensors, all addressable as IP instruments, include seismometers, accelerometers, global positioning system (GPS) geodetic monuments, laser strainmeters, meteorological parameters, imagery, measurements on remote ships of the Scripps' oceanographic fleet, and shoreline HF radar data for surface current mapping. In addition to supporting new sensors on HPWREN we have worked to extend the wireless network to the high seas aboard the Scripps' research vessel Roger Revelle and into Orange County for real time GPS data collection and processing. For example, the extended network measures tectonic strain in Los Angeles, geolocation of GPS sensors to 1cm accuracy with <1.5s latency, and the integrity of the LA Metropolitan Water District's Diamond Valley Lake. The network has also been extended to monitoring of surface currents in the offshore region at the international border between San Diego and Tijuana for understanding detailed circulation offshore in support of contaminant monitoring.
During the next two years we anticipate continued reliance upon HPWREN as a backbone for data delivery in support of the completion of ROADNet's data integration software. To date, we have successfully coupled seismic and accelerometer time series data with imagery collected by cameras in the field in southern California and ships on the high seas. These two extremely heterogeneous data types have provided end-member examples of the types of data to be supported by VORB and the integration of new data types will now proceed apace. We have been funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) to establish a C-Band ground station at UCSD for supporting not only the R/V Roger Revelle, but extensions of HPWREN to Scripps' R/V Melville and an additional ship at another institution. This will allow us to enhance the total data rate to more than 1 Mbps while integrating more shipboard scientific and engineering sensors with videoconferencing and voice-over-IP (VoIP) telephony. We have been funded by the state of California to extend the HF current-measuring radar (CODAR) along the coast within the southern California Bight from Point Conception to south of the US-Mexico border. We anticipate that the current bridge monitoring program will be extended throughout southern California in cooperation with CalTrans and that we will undertake the integration of a new wireless technology for small-scale environmental monitoring on scales substantially smaller than a kilometer using an allied technology.
HPWREN has been an enabling technology for environmental monitoring. The wireless methodologies (HPWREN) and middleware (ROADNet) will be employed broadly in the new NSF MRE-FC EarthScope for real-time seismic data collection in the US. We believe that the Ocean Sciences MRE-FC Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) will be funded in FY04 and, again, the technologies and methodologies developed through HPWREN and ROADNet will be broadly applicable in returning a vast amount of new oceanographic data from the world ocean. Finally, we have inaugurated a new Visualization Center at Scripps in collaboration with the Governor's new Science Institute at UCSD, the California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology [Cal-(IT)2]. This visualization center has provided a focal point for the display of real-time data and derived information from HPWREN and ROADNet. Through a new large ITR grant, the OptIPuter, we will be working to integrate real-time environmental data with real-time display and rapid computation for research and operations. HPWREN has been an extraordinary enabling technology for the geosciences and the related computer sciences. We believe that this synergy will grow rapidly with time through continued support and interest.
Frieder Sieble, Jacobs School of Engineering, dean
Several departments within the Jacobs School of Engineering, UC San Diego, have made extensive use the HPWREN network and have plans for extending use as related to the monitoring of critical infrastructure and lifelines both for purposes of continuous health monitoring and against terrorist threats.
Currently, faculty in Structural Engineering are using the network to monitor selected bridges in the State (such as the Kings Storm Water Channel Bridge on S86). This enables continuous remote monitoring of bridge's response under both traffic loads and potential seismic excitation. This is being evaluated as a means of ensuring continuous assessment of the health of the State's bridge infrastructure and researchers at UCSD are discussing the expansion of this system with Caltrans Engineers to the critical bridges across the State. The data will allow Caltrans engineers to get real-time information on the deterioration of the civil infrastructure, determine the rate of deterioration of these structures and to analyze traffic patterns and usage.
Faculty in Electrical and Computer Engineering are using the network to transmit data from areas vulnerable to terrorist activities. They are developing programs that will integrate the data in a way that will automatically alert decision makers to potential threats. Using the HPWREN network allows the development of monitoring systems that transmit real-time data in such a way that is resistant to infrastructure breakdown, easily deployed and independent of traditional communication systems. Future consideration will be given to making transmission of multimodal information "secure" and "customized" over HPWREN backbone. We are just beginning to identify our areas of greatest vulnerabilities and new developments in computing will allow us to take full advantage of the HPWREN network of the future.
Personally, I am involved in a structural health monitoring, seismic safety and security project on the Coronado Bay Bridge where data from seismometers and digital cameras is transmitted via HPWREN to the San Diego Super Computer Center. This wireless data transfer allows us to monitor the bridge under traffic and seismic loads and the digital video images can also be used to monitor on-line the main shipping channel under the Coronado Bridge and establish virtual geo fences around critical Navy assets in San Diego Bay to monitor breach of stand-off perimeters through pattern recognition. HPWREN provides a fast, easy to deploy and independent (redundant) network to monitor critical infrastructure facilities. Discussions are ongoing with HPWREN and Caltrans to develop a mobile rapid deployment system to investigate bridges following a major earthquake and to relay digital video images via HPWREN into the internet and then directly to the Engineering Services Division of Caltrans in Sacramento where decisions on bridge closures have to be made by the State Bridge Engineer.
Finally, NSF just awarded the construction of the world's first Out-door Large High Performance Shake Table as part of the George E. Brown Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering to UCSD and this new earthquake testing laboratory will be built at the Camp Elliott Field Station, 15 km east of the UCSD main campus. Two month into the start of this construction contract we are monitoring construction progress on-line through a HPWREN link and we expect to further utilize HPWREN for tele-participation in tests on the LHP sake table upon project completion and table commissioning.
In summary, researchers at the Jacobs School of Engineering are extensively using HPWREN and are very supportive of continued expansion of the HPWREN network in Southern California, and we look forward to further cooperation in research and education utilizing HPWREN.
How have results from your project contributed to human resource development in science, engineering, and technology? Please enter or update as appropriate.
HPWREN is providing an opportunity to several research disciplines and education communities to integrate their current means and practices into a new world of integrated high performance real-time data connectivity. Several project collaborators indicate that this network connectivity changes the way that their research is conducted. In other cases, the network plays an instrumental role in changing technology relied upon by disciplinary researchers (e.g., moving towards astronomy instruments with robotics capabilities that can be remotely operated from around the world).
As mentioned in the Training and Development section, an HPWREN staff member earned her master's degree in telecommunications due to her involvement with HPWREN. She specifically focused her thesis on an assessment of HPWREN's impact upon the research being conducted at the Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve. The many students affiliated with the HPWREN project also continue to benefit from the human resource development aspects of the project; their activities are described in the Training and Development section as well.
How have results from your project contributed to physical, institutional, and information resources for research and education (beyond producing specific products reported elsewhere)?
The High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network team is creating a large high performance networking environment, which is being used for both research and education applications. Beyond that, HPWREN researchers are directly working with representatives of the research and education communities to enhance the usability and impact of the high performance networking environment.
How have results from your project contributed to the public welfare beyond science and engineering (e.g., by inspiring commercialized technology or informing regulatory policy)?
Perhaps HPWREN's greatest contributions beyond science and engineering can be described by a few of our collaborators.
Note: These excerpts were taken from support materials provided in conjunction with the HPWREN follow-on proposal.
Curt Munro, San Diego County Regional Communications System manager
During the next several years, RCS agencies rely on working closely with HPWREN and the SDSU Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve to provide field tests of video-sensor applications for law enforcement and the fire service. The ability to utilize HPWREN resources on the reserve essentially provides law enforcement with a safe, laboratory, field environment to prove the concept of these applications before full funding and deployment. The nexus between planned fire service sensor applications and those currently utilized by geologists on HPWREN are very similar, and will provide fire agencies important early warning of dangerous climatic conditions, enabling them to take proactive steps that will result in saving lives and property by avoiding the occurrence of wild-land fires.
If continued, our collaborations between networks with seemingly dissimilar interests will certainly result in exceptional solutions that will benefit those we serve.
Steve Murray, SPAWAR Systems Center-San Diego
SSC - SD involvement in wireless networking continues to evolve as the needs of both military and civil agencies change. Because Department of Defense (DOD) funding and program priorities are in flux, a solid foundation of technical cooperation with the larger wireless networking community is essential to ensure continued "value added" to our many sponsors. Distributed sensor networks and network-centric information sharing have become especially important to our overall laboratory mission.
Your past support has been critical to completing many SSC - SD technical efforts. We look forward to sustained collaboration between SSC - SD and HPWREN to develop technical projects that can leverage the personnel, technical resources and application needs of both our centers. A comprehensive review of such collaborative opportunities is certainly timely, given the establishment of the new Department of Homeland Security and the increasing clarity of information needs that is emerging from the emergency response community.
Pam Arviso, Pala Native American Tribal Member and President of Two Directions, Inc.
All TANF clients are now proficient in the use of the internet. I asked the teachers and the students to identify for me what their uses are. They provided me with the following ways that the internet is used in class for TANF clients on the Indian Reservations we serve:
The life skills teacher uses the internet for her office skills and life skills classes. They use it for searching websites, for home organization, childhood issues, resume preparation, job search and development of the office skills.
A student writes: "The Internet has become a useful every day tool. I myself have used it for countless uses. For example, I use it to research many ideas as well as to gather free embroidery designs. The E-mail helps me keep in touch with others in the class as well as my family. The instant messaging helps every one stay together. I also have used the internet for typing courses and testing, examples of business letters and photos for graphic uses. As you can see this class would not be complete with out the Internet." Jessica Travis, November 19, 2002
The above information has been provided with input from instructors, clients/students and myself as an administrator of a TANF skill training program whose service area is nine Indian Reservations in North San Diego County, California. I hope we have conveyed to you the importance of the high speed connectivity offered by Hans-Werner Braun and the UCSD and National Science Foundation program which makes it possible.
Hunwut Turner, Rincon Band of Mission Indians Education Center Director
We use the network to get Cyber High School classes. We also use the network to get Plato acaccreditedurriculum from the local High School. If we did not have a reliable source of online access we would never have been able to offer these alternative forms of education to our Native American students. With the access and knowledge of the network we were able to create, "mini-computer camps" such as the "Shadow Project" this past summer, students were able to have hands on experience with wireless technology. This would never have been able to be done with out the HPWREN network. In the near future (3-5years) we plan to offer interactive online college courses for students, staff and community members.(reliability of the network being the key bebenefit We also plan on using the network for other "mini-computer camps" to learn about wireless networking as well as using the nenetworks an educational tool to learn about the different fields of sciences. (ex. using in the field cameras hooked up to the network for study).
There has been a significant impact in our community with the use of the HPWREN network. High School students who don't stay after school for the after school programs can come to our center and still take advantage of the Cyber High and Plato systems. We have had 9-10 students use these programs when normally they would never would have. We would never have been able to offer these classes unless we had a reliable network. Using the network as an educational tool has sisignificantlympacted our community. Students would never have had the opportunity to learn about networking and wireless technology. There has been 20-25 students who took advantage of these programs and hopefully will follow the field of computer technology into their higher educational goals.
Robert Smith, Pala Band of Mission Indians Tribal Chairman
As stated in earlier applications, going online use to be a waiting game at the Pala Learning Center. Only one of the center's computers had dial-up Internet access, and the students who came there to do after-school research had to wait their turn for 30 minutes of use. A lot of the students would get upset and leave. That changed when the learning center became the first Indian Reservation in San Diego County to be connected to the High-Performance Wireless Network. Doretta Musick, Learning Center Director and I have dreamed of access to high-speed Internet connectivity and working closely with you and Mrs. Kimberly Bruch, Science Writer of UCSD turned this dream into a reality.
By providing, the learning center with high-speed connectivity has opened up an incredible amount of opportunities for the tribe and its future generations. We have started classes to reach both the older and younger generations to become more familiar with the opportunities made available to them through the Internet. The students are excited to learn more about the Internet, how it helps them complete their homework, and access more sophisticated sites with multimedia files. For instance, now the students are able to finally experience virtual museums, libraries, and even compare their own Pala culture with those of other American Indian tribes. This would not have been possible without the NSF Grant and your hard work and dedication.
There is definitely a need for a program that provides intensive training and technical assistance for the future development of the Pala Learning Center. It would be so helpful to have more resources available for today's promising emerging technologies, educational ideas and applications, by in-depth conversations about the opportunities and challenges for the future of learning.
Denis Turner, Southern California Tribal Chairmen's Association executive director
More importantly, HPWREN has made it possible for us to obtain some of our own funding to extend the wireless network ourselves. In the near future we hope to have our own network, modeled after what HPWREN has demonstrated and fostered with us. As a mentor, HPWREN has let us use their equipment, part of their bandwidth and expertise to start the expansion to all of our tribes. More importantly, they have let us share their dream, and use their knowledge and have taught us. As a result, we have been able to connect all but 4 tribes with a high speed wireless connection. We hope to connect those 4 with in the next 6 months. HPWREN has been our mentor and "big brother" in this endeavor. HPWREN continues to provide vital technical advice and support to train our local Native people in the installation and maintenance of a wireless broadband system. HPWREN also keeps us technologically viable, they try things out and then help us integrate those useful items in our design and implementation.
In the next 3-5 years we hope to work with HPWREN to improve and stabilize our wireless network, to expand the use of the connectivity to give us the ability of what other governmental agencies can achieve with intranet and internet connectivity. Some examples of future important areas of expansion include educational and cultural support; fire fighting, control and monitoring, health and safety issues for emergency preparedness, law enforcement, environmental monitoring of water quality, plant growth, impact of construction by private and public works on Tribal lands and ecology.
We look forward to having a robust stable network that will not only serve our needs as tribal sovereign nations, but will compliment and help support the leading edge programs that HPWREN has engaged in and plans to demonstrate in the future. We hope to be a long time associate with HPWREN, and be able to become, perhaps a junior partner rather than a student, in exploring how technology can practically improve and support the lives and institutions of not only the Native people of our area, but for all.
Ross Frank, UC San Diego Ethnic Studies Professor
During the last 1.5 years, the Tribal Digital Village has completed connections to around three-quarters of the tribal network with the internet connection, training, and technical expertise of the HPWREN Directors and staff. During the next 1.5 years, the Tribal Digital Village project must develop the network to deliver a more robust bandwidth to accommodate the developing programs. In addition, this tribal network must complete the move towards an autonomous tribally-controlled entity, and must execute a plan for sustainability for the next 3-5 years. Planning in close consultation with HPWREN personnel, the continued training of TDV Native American personnel, and collaborative experimentation of new technologies to enhance the existing wireless backbone.
Working with HPWREN, Hewlett-Packard, and a number of other partners, the Southern California Tribal Digital Village has achieved an impressive beginning to the imimplementationf a comprehensive project that has the potential to remake the educational, cultural, and economic terrain for members of the San Diego area tribal communities. In an era that is redefining the meaning of tribal sovereignty in the United States, HPWREN's continued involvement in the development of the Tribal Digital Village will help determine the practical options available to tribal leaders as they try to create the skills and expertise needed for the future within the Indian communities.
Kimberly Mann Bruch, UCSD/SDSC
I owe a great deal of my success in graduate school to my involvement with this NSF-funded research project; without this project, I do not feel that my graduate school career would have been so successful. In addition to my thesis (http://hpwren.ucsd.edu/kmb/thesis), the combined effort of school and work also allowed me to write three different academic conference papers - one for the Central States Communication Association's Annual Conference, another for the Western States Communication Association's Annual Conference, and another for the International Communication AsAssociation'snnual Conference. All three papers were accepted for presentation and these academic presentation experiences were essentially the "icing on the cake" for my graduate school experience. I am truly thankful for the opportunity to be involved with this research project!
Our primary objective is to complete building out the network to include field research communities already described in the HPWREN proposal: the aforementioned seismology stations and ecology sites. The Palomar Observatory is an additional collaborator and HPWREN connectivity is currently being established.
Additionally, the collaboration between HPWREN and the Tribal Digital Village Network comprises a portion of educational activities. As Hewlett Packard CoCorporationrovides funding, labor, and resources to extend the wireless network to additional reservations in the county, HPWREN team members provide guidance regarding installations. We also continue to advise and provide guidance for additional entities, including similar wireless technology research projects throughout the country that use HPWREN as a model for their own work.
The HPWREN team also continues to explore ways in which incident/crisis management applications may be added to the research portion of the network. This work allows us to experiment with and demonstrate additional aspects of wireless networking - including rapid deployments of networking technologies, as well as creating and maintaining connectivity under difficult circumstances (e.g., a brush fire). Examples of these demonstrations are discussed in the Activities and Findings section of this report.
A formal study within the social and behavioral discipline was also finished this past year. Specifically, the HPWREN team used a multi-methodological approach (field experiment with both survey and ethnographic data collection methods) that allowed us to better understand the impacts of broadband connectivity upon our ecological field science collaborators. This study was in conjunction with an HPWREN staff person's master's thesis at San Diego State University's School of Communication.
Do special terms and conditions of your award require you to report any specific information that you have not yet reported?
Has there been any significant change in animal care and use, biohazards, or use of human subjects from what was originally approved (or approved later)?
Yes. Last year (as reported in last year's annual report), we received permission from both the UCSD and the SDSU Human Subjects Committees (IRB) to conduct social science research regarding the impacts of HPWREN upon the Santa Margarita ecological field researchers. This information is on file with our NSF program manager.