hpwren

HPWREN Public Information Materials : Annual Report

The HPWREN Annual Report (August 2000 to May 2001) consists of the following sections:

Project Participants

Project Activities and Findings

Training and Development

Outreach Activities

Publications and Products

Contributions within Discipline

Contributions to Other Disciplines

Contributions to Human Resource Development

Contributions to Resources for Research and Education

Contributions Beyond Science and Engineering

Objectives and Scope

Special Reporting Requirements

 Primary Project Participants

Hans-Werner Braun, UCSD/SDSC, Principal Investigator
Frank L. Vernon, UCSD/SIO, Co-Principal Investigator

Bud Hale, UCSD/SDSC staff
Todd Hansen, UCSD/SDSC staff
Kuo-Wen Lo, UCSD undergraduate student
Kimberly Mann Bruch, UCSD/SDSC staff
Glenn Offield, UCSD/SIO staff
Jose Otero, UCSD graduate student
Huggy Price, UCSD undergraduate student
Pavana Yalamanchili, UCSD graduate student

 Additional Project Participants

UCSD:
Fran Berman, SDSC director
Geneva Lofton Fitzsimmons, American Indian Outreach coordinator
Ross Frank, Ethnic Studies professor
Don McLaughlin, Telecommunications manager
Ramesh Rao, Center for Wireless Communications director
Ann Redelfs, SDSC director for Education, Outreach, and Training
Randall Souviney, Teacher Education Program director

SDSU:
Pablo Bryant, Ecological Field Stations technician
Paul Etzel, Astronomy Department chair
Jay Grover, Mount Laguna Observatory manager
Eric Riggs, Geoscience professor
Sedra Shapiro, Ecological Field Stations interim director
Kris Stewart, Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering director

Other:
Greg Aldering, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Palomar Observatory researcher
Jared Aldern, Warner Unified School District technology outreach coordinator
Pam Arviso, Rincon TANF office manager
Frank Murphy, Warner Unified School District superintendent
Doretta Musick, Pala Learning Center director
Jack Musick, La Jolla Band of Lusieno Indians Tribal Chairman
Lorraine Orosco, San Pasqual Learning Center director
Robert Smith, Pala Band of Mission Indians Tribal Chairman
Sukumar Srinivas, Hewlett Packard Digital Village coordinator
Bob Thickensten, Palomar Observatory manager
Denis Turner, Southern California Tribal Chairman's Association director
Hunwut Turner, Rincon Band of Mission Indians Learning Center director

Additional people/organizations that have been involved (and continue to be involved) with the project:

Disciplinary Science Applications (field researchers):
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and California Institute of Technology (Palomar Observatory)
San Diego State University Astronomy Department (Mount Laguna Observatory)
San Diego State University Ecological Field Stations (Santa Margarita and Sky Oaks)
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics

Education Applications (learning centers):
La Jolla Band of Luiseno Indians
Pala Band of Mission Indians
Rincon Band of Mission Indians
UCSD Early Academic Outreach Program
Warner Unified School District

The HPWREN team has worked with the following entities regarding microwave tower access and installations:
California Department of Forestry (Red Mountain)
California Department of Telecommunications (Red Mountain)
Palomar Communications (Mount Woodson)
Peak Relay (Stephenson Peak)
San Diego Sheriff's Office (Cuyamaca Mountains)
SpectraSite (Cuyamaca Mountains)

In addition to those collaborations described in the Activities and Findings section, the HPWREN team has also been exploring incident/crisis management applications that might benefit from wireless networking. This exploratory investigation has included the following contacts:

Local Agencies and Organizations:
City of San Diego Wireless Communications Office (http://www.sannet.gov/)
Pala Fire Station
San Diego Sheriff's Wireless Communication Office
(http://www.co.san-diego.ca.us/cnty/cntydepts/safety/sheriff/)

State Agencies:
California Department of Forestry (http://www.fire.ca.gov/)
California Transportation (CalTrans) Transportation Management Center (http://www.dot.ca.gov/dist11/operations/tmc.htm)
California Highway Patrol (http://www.chp.ca.gov/html/offices.html#BorderCC)
California Communications Alliance (http://www.businesswire.com/emk/sddpc_cca_faq.htm)

Federal Agencies and National Organizations:
Robotics, Wireless, Crisis Management, and Law Enforcement Divisions within Space and Naval Warfare, Spawar Systems Center - San Diego (http://www.nosc.mil/sandiego/)
Multi-Sector Crisis Management Consortium (http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/mscmc/)

Additionally, the HPWREN team has been working with similar research projects that aim to accomplish similar goals (wireless networking for research and education in "hard to reach" areas). These contacts have included the following:

EDUCAUSE (http://www.educause.edu/)
NSF-funded Advanced Networking Project with Minority Serving Institutions (http://www.anmsi.org/)
North Carolina State University Information Technology Services
UC White Mountain Research Station (http://www.wmrs.edu/)
University of Wyoming Information Technology Services

The HPWREN team has also been involved with the planning and implementation of several additional education applications; these are described in the Training, Development, and Outreach sections. These efforts have included the following contacts:

Ahmium Education, Inc. (Native American organization)
Hewlett Packard, Cisco, and several other industrial collaborators
SDSU Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering (http://www.edcenter.sdsu.edu/)
SDSC Education, Outreach, and Training Group's CAMP Program (http://www.camp.uci.edu/)
SDSU Indigenous Earth Sciences Project (http://rohan.sdsu.edu/~eriggs)
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
Two Directions (Native American organization)
UCSD Early Academic Outreach Program and the UCSD American Indian Outreach Coordinator (http://ucsdeaopnt.ucsd.edu/)
UCSD Office of Graduate Studies and Research and the MASEM program (http://www-ogsr.ucsd.edu/outreach/masem%5Fgrad.htm)
UCSD Teacher Education Program (http://www-tep.ucsd.edu/)

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 Project Activities and Findings

This section encompasses summaries of HPWREN's major activities and findings for the past year. For details of each summary, please refer to the corresponding URL.

May 2001
UCSD Telecommunications Works with HPWREN for Wireless Connectivity at CENIC Conference
Activity: The HPWREN team collaborated with UCSD Telecommunications to provide the recent Corporation for Education Network Initiatives in California (CENIC) conference with wireless connectivity. The connection provided a temporary two-day link from SDSC to Mount Soledad to Paradise Point, which was the location of this year's CENIC 2001 - A Network Odyssey.
Finding: This demonstration not only assisted CENIC and UCSD Telecommunications with last minute efforts to provide conference attendees with data communications, but also allowed HPWREN to test the degree of interference experienced within an overly populated coastal area. The results were surprisingly favorable, as no major interference was experienced and conference attendees were able to utilize the network to stream their data.

May 2001
Mount Laguna Observatory Streams Images From Telescope to SDSU Laboratory via HPWREN
Activity: On the evening of April 16, astronomer Bill Welsh streamed images from Mount Laguna Observatory's 40-inch telescope to his laboratory at San Diego State University (SDSU) via the 45 Mbps backbone of the NSF-funded HPWREN. The following morning, the images were displayed to students in Professor Janet Wood's Astronomy 101 class.
Finding: Upon further discussing this activity with Welsh and the Mount Laguna Observatory director (Paul Etzel), HPWREN researchers discovered that until HPWREN connectivity was provided, there was no mechanism in place for such integration of astronomy research and education at SDSU. Furthermore, this activity truly demonstrated the observatory's need for a stable, high performance data networking connection.

April 2001
HPWREN Collaborates with SDSU for Wireless Networking Demonstration at Local Ecological Reserve
Activity: The HPWREN team participated in a wireless demonstration at the Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve, located in the local Santa Ana mountains. The activity connected four points within the 4344-acre reserve to demonstrate several new techniques for gathering environmental data via wireless technology. "This network will essentially change the way that we do our research," said Sedra Shapiro, Interim Director for the SDSU Ecological Field Stations.
Finding: As with the astronomy site, real-time data connectivity also constitutes a pressing need for ecologists in remote areas. Not only do remote ecological researchers have a need for efficient and timely data exchange, but they also need to leverage between research and education by creating an environment that allows for the incorporation of telemetry data into curricula. Furthermore, the Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve will be an excellent wireless networking test bed, given its rugged terrain and deep river bed. We expect this activity not only to result in high-performance networking connectivity for ecologists, but also to provide an experimental platform for wireless networking experiments. For instance, the reserve's staff has requested that we assist them in deploying the wireless network along a curvy riverbed.

March 2001
Rincon Computer Labs Receive HPWREN Connectivity
Activity: Though the Rincon Indian Reservation sits deep in a northeastern valley of rural San Diego county, the HPWREN team eventually found a way to provide the hard-to-reach area with broadband connectivity. "The collaboration with HPWREN is very beneficial for our tribe's education center, as well as additional computer labs here on the reservation," said Hunwut Turner, Rincon Education Center Director.
Finding: This connectivity allowed us to chain multiple sites within a reservation and maneuver around obstacles in the path. In addition, the education leaders of the reservation played a large role in the installation. It was very useful for the HPWREN team to work with the education community at Rincon and better understand their relationship to the project and their connection - as they became more aware of the details of the technology and its implications.

February 2001
Warner Unified School District Collaborates with UC San Diego
Activity: The HPWREN team worked with students at the San Jose Valley Alternative High School to provide the school and the Warner Community Resource Center with access to high-speed Internet. By extending their T-1 Internet connection across Highway 79 via a wireless ethernet bridge, Warner Unified School District now has the ability for all computers to receive broadband Internet connectivity. While the equipment was paid for by the school district, the HPWREN team participated in the installation and also provided technical expertise to guide the students through the deployment process.
Finding: Perhaps the most interesting discovery of this activity is related to the significant difference that a relatively small network connection can make to some groups. That is, a public road between two components of a school campus presented an insurmountable obstacle relative to data communication; however, a simple wireless link solved the problem. This activity also involved local youth, who showed eagerness as they helped the HPWREN team and learned about the wireless networking technology (e.g., antennas and radios).

February 2001
Local CDF Firefighters Participate in HPWREN Mobile Rapid Response Demonstration
Activity: Despite wet and foggy conditions, HPWREN researchers and local California Department of Forestry (CDF) firefighters recently demonstrated a rapid response mobile wireless access point via a relay using tripod-mounted antennas. The connectivity originated from the HPWREN 45 Mbps backbone node at Mount Woodson, where an antenna was mounted atop a rock pointing toward Iron Mountain, the relay point, which communicated via an additional tripod-mounted antenna with Dos Picos Park, a pre-determined incident base for CDF firefighters.
Finding: Setting up, demonstrating and tearing down a demonstration network within a few hours - despite rugged terrain - is entirely possible. Geographic issues, such as finding and determining access to relay sites (including obtaining permissions from agencies and landowners), turns out to take a very disproportionate amount of time. This activity also revealed the receptiveness of the local CDF with regards to such a technology demonstration.

January 2001
HPWREN Provides Seismologists with Improved Seismic Data Collection and Distribution Methods
Activity: Today's seismologists can view activity from the earth's interior as it occurs - enabling scientists from around the world to gain extensive insight into the often elusive patterns of seismic waves. However, current seismic research techniques only allow researchers to look at rather broad datasets, which is not always enough information to determine the exact cause and effect of an earthquake. Frank Vernon, a researcher at SIO's Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP), is taking real-time data collection and distribution one step farther with HPWREN.
Finding: Though the seismic research network has not yet been connected to HPWREN, the connectivity will allow geophysicists to collect and distribute datasets currently not possible. For example, current monitoring systems do not have enough station coverage for understanding the detailed three-dimensional fault structure of the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults. HPWREN's availability in hard to reach areas will provide researchers with the ability to do more detailed studies of fault zone structure and seismic wave activity, which in turn will provide seismologists around the world with more accurate data.

January 2001
La Jolla Native American Reservation Collaborates with UC San Diego
Activity: Located just below Palomar Mountain at 2400 feet, the La Jolla Native American Reservation's Learning Center serves both young and old - with a rather extensive book selection and a computer lab that now has high-speed Internet access via UC San Diego's High Performance Research and Education Network (HPWREN). Because of the learning center's remote location, however, extending HPWREN to the site was quite a challenge for Hans-Werner Braun and his colleagues.
Finding: Several tribal members assisted the HPWREN team with the installation process, even though they were unlikely to be impacted by the connection; they were requested to help us by their tribal chairman and did so. This tribal support was terrific, however, the HPWREN team soon realized that well-established, well-staffed, and well-organized learning centers play a critical role within the success of Internet connectivity and use. Though a small computer lab is in place on the reservation, human factors are essential within the creation of a learning environment. We continue to work with the learning center director to address some of these issues (e.g., Internet usage policy, Internet filters). The La Jolla activity also showed the team that networks can be deployed in locations lacking electric power.

December 2000
Mount Laguna Observatory Astronomers Benefit from HPWREN
Activity: Situated at an elevation of about 6100 feet, San Diego State University's Mount Laguna Observatory (MLO) is 35 air miles from the SDSU campus (on a direct line of sight) and 45 miles from metropolitan San Diego. With telescopes that achieve maximum resolution, an astronomer at the observatory typically generates 200 images on a long winter night. In order to transfer the data from Mount Laguna to on-campus facilities, digital audio tapes (DATs) are currently used. However, high-speed Internet access provided by UC San Diego's HPWREN project will soon open up a world of opportunities for MLO astronomers.
Finding: High performance networking is not common in remote areas - such as the location of the Mount Laguna Observatory. While an excellent observatory, the researchers used a dial up line for connectivity and tapes for storage - prior to HPWREN connectivity. Even though the observatory is less than 30 minutes from the "high-tech" city of San Diego, remote sites generally present networking obstacles - including those that historically make significant contributions to science and education.

November 2000
HPWREN's 45 Mbps Backbone Installation
Activity: A 45Mbps full-duplex wireless backbone is being established between the San Diego coastline and the county's eastern mountains, which exceed 6000 feet in height. The HPWREN backbone consists of four nodes: SDSC, Mount Woodson, Cuyamaca Mountains, and Stephenson Peak. The initial high-speed application will be the Mount Laguna Observatory, which is operated jointly by San Diego State University Astronomy Department and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Finding: Available wireless technology is quite reliable for remote settings, even for low-power unlicensed spectrum radios. While the 2.4GHz band is starting to face contention, the 5.8GHz band currently provides a viable choice for wide area networks; efficient, large antennas with narrow beam widths also reduce interference. The backbone uses high performance 45Mbps radios at 5.8GHz, with access lines utilizing 802.11b radios at 2.4GHz or 45Mbps radios at 5.8GHz - depending upon performance needs.

October 2000
Pala Band of Indians Collaborate with HPWREN for Access to High-Speed Internet Access and Education Opportunities
Activity: Located at the foot of Palomar Mountain in east San Diego county, the Pala Indian reservation is home to 600 tribal members-including more than 150 children who attend elementary school on the reservation. UC San Diego researchers recently implemented Phase I of the educational portion of HPWREN and the Pala Tribe is already developing educational programs to take advantage of the new technology.
Finding: The local Native American population is very receptive to Internet technologies, and has been very pleasant to work with. There was a quick technology adoption, with network users ready to utilize the connection the moment it came into place. The local learning center director had also helped us to foster educational programs utilizing the connection via collaborations with other UCSD activities, such as computer lab improvements and a distance tutoring program for the youth. Adults at the learning center also show great interest in Internet classes implemented by HPWREN, and repeatedly express that this experience makes a great difference to them. (e.g., two of them recently gained employment utilizing their newfound computer skills).

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 Training and Development

HPWREN has provided both undergraduate and graduate students with opportunities to gain hands-on experience in the field of wireless networking; this field work allows them to build upon knowledge learned in the classroom and expand their expertise in the overall computer science and networking arena.

HPWREN staff members have also been provided with insight regarding wireless technology, FCC issues, and more. One staff member has actually enrolled in a masters program at SDSU's School of Communication, specializing in telecommunications and social science, because of her involvement with the HPWREN project. Another graduate student is currently finishing her master's degree at UCSD's School of Engineering, using the wireless technology as her thesis project.

In addition to the training and development among the HPWREN team, collaborators and partners have also benefited from the lessons learned during the past year. For instance, the California Department of Forestry demonstration (as described in the Activities and Findings section) provided the agency with information regarding ways in which wireless networking technology might be able to assist them with their communication needs during an incident. This interaction with the CDF not only served as a training activity, but also provided the HPWREN team with the opportunity to build a relationship with the CDF. This relationship led HPWREN to gain permission for access to agency microwave tower resources of interest to connect field research sites and education centers.

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 Outreach Activities

HPWREN's major outreach activities are described in the Activities and Findings section; however, the team has also been involved in several additional outreach projects. For instance, a couple of HPWREN team members (Braun and Bruch) teach classes (Introduction to Internet, Advanced Search Skills, and HTML) at two reservations; another HPWREN team member (Price) tutors school children at a third reservation. Further, the UCSD Early Academic Outreach Program recently established daily distant-tutoring sessions between UCSD students and the Pala Learning Center school children; this program provides the Pala youth with access to mentors in both science and mathematics.

Perhaps one of the most significant HPWREN outreach activities includes the team's involvement with the formation of the Hewlett Packard Digital Village, which encompasses a $5 million dollar grant recently awarded to the Southern California Tribal Chairman's Association. HPWREN is specifically involved with providing the Digital Village Executive Committee with guidance regarding the provision and utilization of high-speed internet access among all San Diego county Native American reservations. The HP Digital Village will essentially build upon the work already accomplished by HPWREN, by adding additional reservations to the wireless network and establishing additional education programs at more learning centers.

Outreach continuously plays a large role within the project, as HPWREN often serves as a catalyst between government agencies and various research and education programs. Because of our interaction with a wide array of field researchers, educators, and administrators, we have been able to assist with a number of proposals that aim to build upon HPWREN. For example, the SDSU Indigenous Earth Sciences Project recently submitted an NSF proposal that would establish a geoscience project utilizing HPWREN connectivity. Further, the astronomers, ecologists, and geophysicists involved with the research applications are also interested in education programs - which often times involve the HPWREN-affiliated Native American learning centers.

Our exploratory work with the incident and crisis management communities has provided even more insight. For instance, we are currently working with the City of San Diego's Wireless Communication Office to determine if there is a way in which we might be able to provide remote city reservoirs with broadband connectivity.

Another informal outreach activity involved an HPWREN staff member arranging for a meeting between the Pala Legislative Affairs Tribal Member, the Pala Learning Center Director, and Vice President Gore; the purpose of the meeting was to allow the Pala Tribe to express their need for equal access to technology, such as broadband Internet, to a high-level politician. Unfortunately, Vice President Gore was unable to make the meeting (he decided to meet with Jay Leno for an interview instead) and we were only able to attend his L.A. Get Out the Vote rally and shake hands. Though the meeting fell through, it was an interesting experience for everyone involved - especially since we were able to better understand how important this connectivity is for the tribes.

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 Publications and Products

What Have You Published In Journals?
Though HPWREN has no academic publications at this early stage, we are currently assessing journals that we wish to target for publication. Because we would like to measure both technical (network measurements and analysis) and non-technical (social impacts) aspects of the network, we are hopeful to publish in multiple academic journals within the upcoming two years.

What Books or Other One-Time Publications Have You Produced?
HPWREN frequently publishes on-line news stories regarding major research and often discusses such activities and findings with the mass media. The project has been featured in publications ranging from the "Chronicle of Higher Education" to "Nuts and Volts." The following list outlines the majority of local, regional, national, and niche press coverage to date:

Wired News: October 27, 2000
Tribe Gets High-Speed Connection

Native American News: October 28, 2000
UC San Diego Wireless Network Project Collaborates with Pala Band of Indians for Education Opportunities

Indian Country Today: November 1, 2000
American Indians try to bridge 'digital divide'

Primeur Online: January 2, 2001
HPWREN provides seismologists with improved data collection and distribution methods

Wired News: January 15, 2001
The Net Comes to Native Americans

North County Times: January 22, 2001
School to give Net access to tribes

Canku Ota: January 27, 2001
School to give Net access to tribes

NSF press release: February 8, 2001
Research Network Brings Wireless Internet to Native American Reservations

eurekalert!: February 8, 2001
Research Network Brings Wireless Internet to Native American Reservations

newswise.com: February 9, 2001
Wireless Internet to Native American Reservations

sciencenews.com: February 10, 2001
Research Network Brings Wireless Internet to Native American Reservations

Science Daily: February 13, 2001
Research Network Brings Wireless Internet to Native American Reservations

Heise Online: February 16, 2001
Tele-Learning in Indianerreservaten

Information Warefare News: February 24, 2001
Research Network Brings Wireless Internet to Native American Reservations

High Country Journal: March 1, 2001
Warner School District Collaborates with UC San Diego to Receive Wireless Internet (print)

Julian News: March 7, 2001
Warner Springs High Students Install Wireless Internet (print)

The Chronicle of Higher Education: March 12, 2001 (on-line) and March 30, 2001 (print)
San Diego Researchers Build a Fast Wireless Network for a Remote Inland Area

EDUCAUSE listserv: March 14, 2001
Researchers Build a Fast Wireless Network for Remote Inland Area

IEEE's Distributed Systems Online: April 2001
HPWREN: San Diego's Wireless Prototype Network

Nuts 'n Volts: April 2001
Computers and Networking: Wireless Internet Reaches Native American Tribes via Solar-Powered Net (print)

Wired News: May 21, 2001
IT Rejuvenating the Reservation

Additionally, HPWREN has been (and continues to be) regularly featured in the following publications of the San Diego Supercomputer Center:
SDSC's Online
SDSC's Envision

Other Specific Products: (database, software, instruments, inventions, physical collections, educational aids, etc)
The primary product of the project is the 45Mbps full-duplex wireless backbone (consisting of four nodes) that is being established between the San Diego coastline and the county's eastern mountains. Various access points provide connectivity to this backbone.

Over the past year, the HPWREN team has also created (and continues to maintain) a website (http://hpwren.ucsd.edu) that focuses on the project's progress. While thousands of photographs of the project's development are available within the online photo gallery, several flyers, handouts, and posters have also been produced and distributed.

The team has made several presentations, including the following:

Wireless-Satellite Hybrid Network Infrastructure: Projects of Opportunity: December 7, 2000
http://www.nevada.edu/epscor/conference.html

Cooperation for Network Initiatives in California (CENIC) 2001 - A Networking Odyssey: May 10, 2001
http://www.cenic.org/CENIC2001/CENIC01sched.html

NASA's Research and Education Network - Mobile Terrestrial and Space Networking Workshop: June 25, 2001
http://www.nren.nasa.gov/workshop6.html

Do you have any other major journal publications to report?
Though HPWREN has no academic publications at this early stage, we are currently assessing journals that we wish to target for publication. Because we would like to measure both technical (network measurements and analysis) and non-technical (social impacts) aspects of the network, we are hopeful to publish in multiple academic journals within the upcoming two years.

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 Contributions Within Discipline

How have your findings, techniques you developed or extended, or other products from your project contributed to the principal disciplinary field(s) of the project?

The HPWREN team is not just building a high-speed network for the sake of fast connectivity. Instead, the team is concerned with the "hows" and "whys" this network is important, and the specific applications that require such broadband connectivity.

The principal objective of the HPWREN project is to apply wireless technologies to various science and education environments, and to research the performance parameters. Such latter research is supported by dedicated measurement machines at network nodal sites, as well as measurement capabilities within other equipment such as network routers and radios. Weather stations and video cameras further allow HPWREN researchers to collate environmental data with measurements gained via the networking equipment. Data and results are being principally communicated via our web site, specifically http://stat.hpwren.ucsd.edu/.

Pavana Yalamanchili, UCSD Computer Science and Engineering graduate student, reports the following significant findings regarding her thesis research with HPWREN:

The affects of weather conditions on the wireless channel/link. Weather factors like temperature, humidity, dew, pressure, rainfall and wind are being collected and their co-relation to the high-speed backbone radio performance parameters like received signal levels, bit error rates etc are being studied. So far, a co-relation between the rail fall levels and the received signal levels (RSL) has been found; a significant drop in the RSL tends to affect the bit error rates (BER) and hence the error intervals. At times the RSL drops close enough to the threshold value resulting in no connectivity (like in MLO during a recent snow storm where connectivity was lost for almost a whole day). Plans are underway to map visibility using the cameras mounted atop some of the backbone nodes so that the affects of visibility on the radio performance can be studied.

The affects of the outdoor point to point/point to multipoint antenna solution versus the IEEE 802.11 protocol. IEEE 802.11 protocol was not meant for long distance outdoor purposes and to make it work over as long as 20 miles requires vendors to utilize additional protocols.

Encryption issues. For access point radios used by HPWREN, throughput is significantly affected when encryption is enabled on the radios. This makes the use of encryption a trade-off function between data sensitivity and available throughput.

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 Contributions to other Disciplines

How have your findings, techniques you developed or extended, or other products from your project contributed to disciplines other than your own (or disciplines of colleagues and associates not covered under "Contributions within Discipline")? Please enter or update as appropriate.

HPWREN's contributions to the disciplinary science fields of geophysics, astronomy, and ecology are described below by geophysicist Frank Vernon (UCSD/SIO), astronomers Greg Aldering (Palomar Observatory) and Paul Etzel (Mount Laguna Observatory), and ecological reserve administrator Sedra Shapiro (Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve).

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Geophysics

Frank Vernon, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Institute of Geophsics and Planetary Physics:
HPWREN enables researchers like myself and others to collect and distribute datasets that we wouldn't otherwise have access to. For example, current monitoring systems do not have enough station coverage for understanding the detailed three-dimensional fault structure of the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults. HPWREN's availability in hard to reach areas provides us with the ability to do more detailed studies of fault zone structure and seismic wave activity, which in turn will provide seismologists around the world with more accurate data.

The HPWREN project will play a great role in expanding and improving the ways in which seismic research is conducted. We will soon be able to set up experiments where the number of sensors are an order of magnitude greater than today.

Concentrating his research on the San Jacinto fault zone, Frank Vernon will use the HPWREN in conjunction with the ANZA Broadband Seismic Network, a 24-bit broadband real-time telemetry network in southern California. This activity at ANZA will serve as a model for real-time seismic monitoring. Furthermore, it will be used as a prototype for proposed NSF/Major Research Equipment initiatives such as the USArray Component for the Earthscope project.

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Astronomy

Greg Aldering, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Palomar Observatory:
The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory; led by Dr. Greg Aldering) will be using wide-field astronomical images obtained at the Palomar Observatory's Oschin Schmidt telescope to discover nearby supernovae. The high-speed HPWREN connection will enable real-time transfer of these images from Palomar Observatory to the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab where the search will be conducted. This will allow discovery of supernovae within hours of the imaging observations, enabling them to be studied in more detail the very same night using SNfactory observing time on the University of Hawaii's 2.2-meter telescope on Mauna Kea. The images are being obtained as part of the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT; led by Dr. Steve Pravdo) program at CalTech's Jet Propulsion Lab, with a camera housing three 4k x 4k CCDs each covering 1.3 square degrees of sky. Thus, in addition to supernova discoveries, the HPWREN connection will enable rapid discovery and confirmation of potentially dangerous asteroids. The images are taken and transferred automatically, under computer control. The high-speed of the HPWREN connection will also allow remote observations, e.g., for the purposes of diagnosing instrument or telescope problems, as well as remote collection of weather information (potentially via an all-sky cloud camera). In the future, remote observing using the other Palomar Observatory telescopes (including the venerable Hale 200-inch) can be implemented.

Recent studies of supernovae - using them to measure distances to galaxies tens of billions of lightyears away - have led to the startling revelation that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating. This discovery was named Science Magazine's "Discovery of the Year" in 1998, and has sparked a revolution in cosmology and particle physics which many lay people have followed closely. Likewise, the probable asteroid collisions with Earth in the past - and the danger asteroids like NEAT will find may pose in the future - have become an established component of American culture. The wide appeal of these subjects has undoubtedly enhanced the goals of science education. At the more immediate level, the graduate and undergraduate students working on the SNfactory can see the scientific discovery process in action on an hourly basis as images with potentially new supernovae arrive via HPWREN from Palomar. They also actively participate in the analysis of the supernovae lightcurves and spectra, and help develop the resulting scientific conclusions.

Paul Etzel, San Diego State University, Astronomy Department chair, Mount Laguna Observatory director
We are extremely excited about seeing a major goal of this collaborative networking project with UCSD realized. We will now work to build research, educational, and public outreach capabilities upon HPWREN. For instance, a pilot "service" observing program is planned for the fall of 2001 in which Dr. Fred Ringwald and his students at CSU Fresno will be granted observing time at MLO. Over the Internet, Ringwald will remotely direct an SDSU observer physically located at MLO and interact with the data flow of new images in real time to optimize observations. The recent demonstration by SDSU professors Welsh and Wood just touches on the educational opportunities that can be afforded by HPWREN in our General Education classes and our Astronomy Majors and Graduate programs. Public outreach activities include the rapid response to recent discoveries of general interest. For example, images of new comets could be placed on the web for distribution to the media or display at local high schools, community colleges, or the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center (located in San Diego's Balboa Park).

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Ecology

Sedra Shapiro, San Diego State University, Ecological Field Stations interim director
The May demonstration at the Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve (SMER) provided researchers with an opportunity to learn about the new wireless techniques being used to gather data, and the general public was provided a unique opportunity to learn about the natural world from researchers who are unveiling its secrets. Activities like these allow everyone to gain a greater understanding of our South Coast Ecoregion.

This activity at SMER will serve as a model for real-time biological environmental monitoring. Furthermore, it will be used as a prototype for proposed NSF/Major Research Equipment projects such as NEON.

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 Contributions to Human Resource Development

How have results from your project contributed to human resource development in science, engineering, and technology? Please enter or update as appropriate.

HPWREN is providing an opportunity to research disciplines and education communities to integrate their current means and practices into a new world of integrated high performance real-time data connectivity. Several project collaborators indicate that this network connectivity changes the way that their research is conducted. In other cases, the network plays an instrumental role in changing technology relied upon by disciplinary researchers (e.g., moving towards astronomy instruments with robotics capabilities that can be remotely operated from around the world).

As mentioned in the Training and Development section, a UCSD computer science and engineering graduate student is using HPWREN as the basis for her thesis while an HPWREN staff member is also pursuing an advanced degree in telecommunications due to her involvement with the project. The latter person is particularly interested in future research that provides an in-depth assessment of HPWREN's social and behavioral impacts.

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 Contributions to Resources for Research and Education

How have results from your project contributed to physical, institutional, and information resources for research and education (beyond producing specific products reported elsewhere)?

The HPWREN network, as part of its research, is creating a large high performance networking environment, which is being used for research and education applications. Beyond that, HPWREN researchers are directly working with representatives of the research and education communities to enhance the usability and impact of the high performance networking environment.

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 Contributions Beyond Science and Engineering

How have results from your project contributed to the public welfare beyond science and engineering (e.g., by inspiring commercialized technology or informing regulatory policy)?

The HPWREN team has quickly discovered that an excellent testbed for wireless technology lies within remote communities. Furthermore, the team has learned that mass media channels are important facets of information awareness among the networking research community; however, interpersonal communication channels play a much greater role in the diffusion of the technology among the remote community itself. Though HPWREN is in its infancy, the team anticipates that the relationships that have blossomed over the past year will continue to provide the project with opportunities to reach beyond contributions specific to science and engineering. We are particularly hopeful to engage in formal social science studies that will measure the social impacts of HPWREN upon publics involved with the remote field research sites and the rural education centers. We also aim to continue our discussions with the FCC, which provides us with a greater understanding of spectrum allocation, policy, and usage issues; this relationship with the FCC additionally provides the FCC with insight regarding wireless networking issues.

Perhaps HPWREN's greatest contributions beyond science and engineering can be described by a couple of our collaborators.

Sukumar Srinivas, Hewlett Packard Digital Village Coordinator
The connection of HPWREN to the learning centers within the Southern California reservations of the La Jolla, Rincon and Pala tribes creates a wonderful opportunity for the students and adults in these underserved, remote communities to experience the power of the Internet. The current solutions for distance learning have created the environment of the right technical network i.e. interactivity enabled by web cameras and input tablets, combined with the human resource network i.e. tutors of Calculus and Algebra at UCSD. This model can be extended to teaching and learning of other subjects. Adult education at Rincon and Pala on programming and use of the Internet expose parents and others in the community to the positive impact the Internet can make in their lives and create the awareness and motivation to use this opportunity to raise the quality of their life.

As part of the Tribal Digital Village QuickStart plan, HPWREN will be extended to all eighteen tribal communities within the Digital Village. Our belief is that this is the most expeditious, cost-effective solution to bring the benefits of the HP grant to all the tribes. As we investigate the long term networking solution for the Tribal Digital Village, we will be making great use of the HPWREN to further our understanding of the pedagogy and content creation requirements of the distance learning application of the Internet.

Hunwut Turner, Rincon Band of Mission Indians Education Center Director
The collaboration with HPWREN is very beneficial for our tribe's education center, as well as additional computer labs here on the reservation.

Robert Smith, Pala Band of Mission Indians Tribal Chairman
By providing the Pala Learning Center with high-speed Internet access, UCSD has opened up an incredible amount of opportunities for our tribe and its future generations. We will begin classes to teach both the older and younger generations of our tribe-so that they can become more familiar with the many opportunities available to them through the Internet.

Jack Musick, La Jolla Band of Lusieno Indians Tribal Chairman
The UC San Diego collaboration with La Jolla provides an opportunity for our learning center to receive access to technology and capabilities that we otherwise would not have in our remote county area. We look forward to building educational programs that allow both our children and adults to take advantage of the connectivity and learn more about how they can use computers and the Internet.

Geneva Lofton Fitzsimmons, UCSD American Indian Outreach coordinator and La Jolla Tribal Member
It is very important for our tribe to maintain the education necessary to keep up to speed with today's booming technology era. We are working hard to ensure that Native American children and adults are given adequate educational opportunities. And, projects like this help us to do just that.

Kimberly Mann Bruch, UCSD/SDSC
After teaching classes on both Pala and Rincon reservations, I came to better understand the importance of this connection for the tribes. Not only does the broadband connectivity via HPWREN allow rural learning centers the same access as urban communities, it also provides the youth with opportunities to better their math and science skills. For instance, a young girl that lives on the Pala reservation recently told me that her seventh grade average math score was a C; for the first six months of eighth grade year, her average math score was an F. However, her eighth grade math average has increased from F to an A/B (she wasn't sure of the exact average) over the past three months. She feels that this recent grade improvement is due to her daily participation (Monday through Thursday, 2:30-5pm) with UCSD math tutors via HPWREN. Three days per week, the tutors assist the students with their homework via HPWREN using distance video and whiteboards from UCSD to the Pala Learning Center; in addition the tutors travel to the reservation and meet with the youth person-to-person once per week.

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 Objectives and Scope

Our primary objective is to complete building out the network to include field research communities already described in the HPWREN proposal: the aforementioned seismology stations and ecology sites. The Palomar Observatory is an additional collaborator and HPWREN connectivity is currently being established.

Additionally, the collaboration between HPWREN and the HP Digital Village project will comprise a portion of future educational activities. As HP provides funding, labor, and resources to extend the wireless network to additional reservations in the county, HPWREN team members will provide guidance regarding installations. We are also discussing possible collaborations between HPWREN and UCSD's Teacher Education Program, as this group is interested in the feasibility of remote field observations between UCSD and rural county schools.

The HPWREN team would also like to formally add an incident/crisis management application to the research portion of the network. This would allow us to experiment with and demonstrate more aspects of wireless networking - including rapid deployments of networking technologies, as well as creating and maintaining connectivity under difficult circumstances (e.g., a brush fire). According to an NSF official, crisis management and incident response aspects are critical to long-term visions, to both NSF and DARPA.

Formal studies within the social and behavioral disciplines are also being considered. The HPWREN team is currently doing exploratory work in this area - becoming familiar with methodological approaches to social science studies. We are specifically considering a multi-method approach (field experiment with both survey and ethnographic data collection methods) that would allow us to better understand the social impacts of broadband connectivity upon our collaborators (remote field researchers and rural education centers). The staff member that prompted this work is also studying the APA-established ethical principles involved with conducting such studies.

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 Special Reporting Requirements

Do special terms and conditions of your award require you to report any specific information that you have not yet reported?

no

 Unobligated Funds

Do you anticipate that more than twenty percent of the funds under your NSF award will remain unobligated at the end of the period for which NSF currently is providing support?

NSF granted the three-year project all equipment money within the first year, which allowed the project much greater flexibility relative to building the network. However, a significant amount of that equipment funding remains to be allocated over the remaining duration of the project, and hence more than 20% of the funds allocated to year 1 are not yet obligated.

 Animals, Biohazards, Human Subjects

Has there been any significant change in animal care and use, biohazards, or use of human subjects from what was originally approved (or approved later)?

no

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